The effect of anabolic steroid upon skeletal muscle contractile force

Article. The effect of anabolic steroid upon skeletal muscle contractile force

Their use has been extended by "power event" athletes who have attempted to develop increased muscular contractile force.

The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness

Published on Saturday, September 1, 1973 by Gideon Ariel

GIDEON ARIEL, Ph.D.

(from the Department of Exercise Science, University of Massachusetts,

Amherst, Massachusetts, U.S.A.)

The effect of anabolic steroid

upon skeletal muscle contractile force

The work of Kochakian and Murlin I provides the basis for the use of anabolic steroids. The pharmacological properties of these steroids has proved of clinical value in the treatment of conditions where protein synthesis and reduced nitrogen loss is desired. Their use has been extended by “power event” athletes who have attempted to develop increased muscular contractile force. The use of anabolic steroids for this purpose is reported to be wide spread.

Johnson and O’Shea’ found that strength, body weight, oxygen uptake and blood nitrogen retention were significantly increased when healthy subjects were administered an anabolic steroid. Fowler’ reported no effects of steroids on strength. Casner, Early and Carlson’ reported no significant strength increase due to steroid treatment. Ariel’ found psychological enhancement of human performance by administration of placebos as anabolic steroids.

This supported study investigates the effect of the anabolic steroid (17-betahydroxy-17alfa-methyl-androsta-1,4diene-3 -one) upon the skeletal muscle contractile force.

This research was supported by a grant to Dr. Benjamin Ricci from a Public Health Service Biomedical Services Grant awarded to the University of Massachusetts.

METHOD AND :MATERIALS

Six male varsity athletes were used. All six volunteers had experienced two years of weight training, five days a week. For a period of four months prior to the beginning of the test procedures all the subjects lifted for five days and were tested on the seventh day in the bench, military and seated presses and a squat. A standard warm up procedure was performed and each test was a maximal lift. The experiment was conducted during a subsequent eight week period. On the second, third, and fourth weeks of the study all the subjects were given placebo pills daily and informed they contained 10 mg. of 17betahydroxy-l7alfa-methyl-androsta-1,4diene-3 -one, an oral anabolic steroid. From the fourth to the eighth week a double blind technique was used. Three of the subjects received 10 mg. of the oral anabolic steroid (17beta-hydroxy-17alfa-methyl-androsta-1,4diene-3-one) and the remaining three subjects continued to receive the placebo. The oral anaoblic steroid and the placebo were assigned to the subjects by code, by the University Health Service and the investigator was not informed which subject received the steroid until after the eight weeks testing period.

Regression analysis was utilized to investigate the effect of the anabolic steroid

The effect of anabolic steroid

upon skeletal muscle contractile force

GIDEON ARIEL, Ph.D.

(from the Department of Exercise Science, University of Massachusetts,

Amherst, Massachusetts, U.S.A.)

THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS

Vol. 13 – No. 3 – pp. 187-190 (September 1973)

ARIEL

THE EFFECT OF ANABOLIC STEROID

upon the maximal lifts between the training period and the anabolic period and between the control and experimental groups for the same two periods.

RESULTS

Figure 1 presents the changes in contractile force for both control and experimental groups for the training and anabolic periods. Data is reported for the bench, military and sitting presses and the squat exercises. Also, total contractile force gain in all four exercises is reported.

A comparison of regression lines between the training and the anabolic periods and a comparison between the control and experimental groups is reported in Table 1.

Considering the differences between the training and the anabolic steroid periods,

TRAINING PERIOD

200

190

180

Y 170

a comparison of regression lines yields the following results. No differences were found between the training period and the anabolic steroid period for the control group (Table 1; 1-5). Significant differences between the slopes of the regression lines were found in the bench press, seated press, and the squat exercises, for the experimental group between the training period and the anabolic steroid period (Table 1; 6, 8, 9). A significant difference was found when all exercises were combined for the experimental group (Table 1; 10).

When comparing the slopes of the con

trol group to the experimental group, no significant difference was found in the training period in the bench press and seated press exercises (Table 1; 11, 12). However, significant differences were

ANABOLIC STEROID PERIOD

� BENCH PRESS

� SITTING PRESS

� MILITARY PRESS

� SQUAT X TOTAL

—CONTROL

– EXPERIMENTAL

w

U Cr

0 LL

w

J

IU Q

Iz 0 0

160 I50 140 130 120 110 100 90

80 T

5 I WEEKS

EFFECT OF ANABOLIC STEROID (DIANABOL) UPON THE MUSCULAR CONTRACTILE FORCE

5

560 550

540 530 520 510 500 490

480 470 460

450

440

430 T

Fig. 1.-The effect of anabolic steroid (Dianabol) upon the muscular contractice force.

2

THE EFFECT OF ANABOLIC STEROID

ARIEL

TABLE 1.-A slope analysis of regression lines representing skeletal muscle contractile force between the training period and the anabolic steroid period and between the control and the experimental groups.

Reg. Coef.

Control group TP AP

1. Bench P. (1.591) (0.454)

2. Military P. (1.336) (0.378)

3. Seated P. (-0.605) (0.607)

4. Squat (1.138) (1.363)

5. Tot a 1 (3.260) (2.802)

Experimental group (2.689) (6.475)

6. Bench P.

7. Military P. (1.915) (3.637)

8. Seated P. (0.986) (3.864)

9. Squat (3.865) (8.637)

10. Total (9.055) (22.613)

Training period C E

11. Bench P. (1.591) (2.689)

12. Military P. (1.336) (1.915)

13. Seated P. (-0.605) (0.986)

14. Squat (1.138 (3.865)

15. Total (3.260) (9.056)

Anabolic period (0.454) (6.475)

16. Bench P.

17. Military P. (0.378) (3.637)

18. Seated P. (0.607) (3.864)

19. Squat (1.363) (8.637)

20. Total (3.260) (9.056)

d.f. M.S. F-ratio

1 6.464 1.97 (1,6)

1 4.589 2.25 (1,6)

1 7.345 2.87 (1,6)

1 0.253 0.08 (1,6)

1 1.049 0.05 (1,6)

1 71.669 9.98* (1,6)

1 14.826 5.53 (1,6)

1 41.414 52.73** (1,6)

1 113.860 13.41** (1,6)

1 919.100 35.09** (1,6)

1 6.033 1.79 (1,6)

1 1.676 1.17 (1,6)

1 12.656 12.34* (1,6)

1 37.183 6.20* (1,6)

1 167.910 8.13* (1,6)

1 181.262 25.54** (1,6)

1 53.105 16.20** (1,6)

1 53.050 22.72** (1,6)

1 276.469 47.85** (1,6)

1 1962.379 75.85** (1,6)

*F-ratio significant at the .05 level of confidence.

“”F-ratio significant at the .01 level of confidence.

Reg. Coef. = Regression coefficients; TP = Training period; AP _ Anabolic steroid period; C = Control group; E = Experimental Group.

‘found in the same exercises during the anabolic period (Table 1; 16, 17). Significant differences between the control and the experimental groups were found in the seated press, and the squat exercises and when all exercises combined, for the training period as well as the anabolic steroid period (Table 1; 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 20).

DlscussloN

From these findings it is apparent that the experimental group were able to exert a greater maximal contractile force in the anabolic period when compared to the

training period. The rate of progress was higher during the anabolic period as compared to the control group which did not alter significantly in their rate of progress.

With the acception of the bench press and the military press exercises, all the other exercises yield significant differences between the control and the experimental groups under the experimental conditions.

From these findings and those cited in previous studies 1 it appears that anabolic steroids produce physiological as well as psychological effects on contractile force of skeletal muscles.

ARIEL

THE EFFECT OF ANABOLIC STEROID

SUMMARIES

G. ARIEL

The effect of anabolic steroid upon skeletal muscle contractile force.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of anabolic steroid (17betahydroxy-17alfa-methyl-androsta-1,4-diene-3one) upon skeletal muscle contractile force.

A double blind technique was used to examine the effect on six male subjects. From these findings it was apparent that the experimental group were able to exert a greater maximal contractile force in the anabolic steroid period when compared to the training period. Also, the rate of progress of the experimental group was higher during the anabolic steroid period as compared to the control group.

From these findings it appears that anabolic steroids produce physiological effects on contractile force of skeletal muscles.

[- J. Sports Med.., 13, 187-190, 1973]

G. ARIEL

L’effet des stcroides anaboliques sur la force

contractile du muscle squelettique.

Le but de cette etude a etc de rechercher I’effet du steroide anabolique (17beta-hydroxy-17alpha-methyl-androsta-l,4-diene-3-one) sur la force contractile du muscle squelettique.

Une technique double blind a etc utilisde pour examiner son effettsur six sujets masculins. On a trouve que le groupe experimental etait capable d’exercer une force contractile maximale plus grande dans la periode sous faction du steroide anabolique par rapport a la pdriode d’entrainement. Le taux de progres du groupe experimental etait egalement plus elevd pendant la periode sous faction du steroide anabolique par rapport au groupe temoin.

II apparait de la que les stcroides anaboliques produisent des effets physiologiques sur la force contractile des muscles squelettiques.

[-J. Sports Med. ., 13, 187-190, 7973]

G. ARIEL

El efecto de los esteroides anabolicos sobre la fuerza contractil del musculo esquelctico.

El objeto de este trabajo ha sido el de investigar sobre los efectos del esteroide anabolico (17beta-hidroxi-17alfa-metil-androsta1,4-diene-3-one) sobre la fuerza contractil del musculo esqueletico.

Una tccnica “double blind” se empleo para examinar el efecto sobre seis sujetos varones. Se ha encontrado que el grupo experimental podia efectuar una fuerza contractil maximal mayor en el periodo bajo la accion de esteroide anabolico en relacion al periodo de entrenamiento. La tasa de progreso del grupo experimental era igualmente mas elevada durante el periodo bajo la action de esteroide anabolico en relacion al grupo de control.

De aqui resulta que los esteroides anabolicos producen efectos fisiologicos sobre la fuerza contractil de los musculos esqueleticos,

[. J. Spurts Mcd. -, 13, 187-190, 1973]

REFERENCES

1. Arid G., Saville G.: c Anabolic Steroids: Physiological Effects of Placebos*. Medicine and Science in Sports, 4, 124-126, 1972.

2. Casner S. W., Early R. G., Carlson B. R.: ((Anabolic Steroid Effects on Body Composition in Normal Young Men D. J. Sports

Med., 11, 98-103, 1971.

3. Fowler W. M. Jr., Gardner G. W., Egstrom G. H.: � Effect of an Anabolic Steroid on Physical Performance of Young Men a. J.

Appl. Physiol., 20, 1038-1040, 1965.

4. Johnson L. C., O’Shea J. P.: a Anabolic Steroid: Effects on Strength Development a. Science, 164, 957-959, 1969.

5. Kochakian C. D., Murlin J. R.: � The Effects of Male Hormone on the Protein and Energy Metabolism of Castrate Dogs s. Journal of Nutrition, 10, 437-459, 1935.

[Author’s address: G. Arlel

Boyden Gym.

Amherst, Mass. 01002 (U.S.A.)]

Reprinted from THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS

Vol. 13 – No. 3 – pp. 187-190 (September 1973)

Published by Edizioni Minerva Medica, Corso Bramante 83-85 and printed in Turin (Italy)