Ariel Dynamics Inc.

Online. Ariel Dynamics Inc.

Published on Monday, September 2, 1996 by Gideon Ariel


The revolutionary Ariel Computerized Exercise System (CES) heralds a new era in physical conditioning, executive fitness, sports training, rehabilitation and research. The Personal computer approach to the practice of resistive exercise is a quantum change in both thinking and application. The computer puts resistive exercises into a broad new realm of possibilities for applications in health care, human service, athletics, fitness, training and education.

This new generation of exercise equipment uses a state of the art computer to monitor and produce instant feedback on the individuals’ performance. With this unique feature, the Ariel CES achieves the most efficient and productive exercise and training program in the world today.

Ariel CES combines a unique set of objectives which will be quite beneficial to you and your organization. Naturally we have the objective to help you to achieve maximum health and fitness in the shortest possible time, but we go one step further. For the first time, you can now use high technology to manage and control your exercise system.

Ariel Dynamics Inc. is a company founded by field experts in the areas of fitness, exercise and rehabilitation. Our team of designers and programmers have been involved in 5 existing successful companies, written over 200 scientific papers, designed over 100 successful products, and worked with leading corporations and agencies such as IBM, NASA, Wilson Sporting Goods, US Olympic Committee and many more. This experience is evident in our hardware and software. The features you will treasure are the most advanced in the fields of rehabilitation, training and physical fitness.

In all the previous descriptions of exercise equipment, the user has had to determine the amount of resistance and the number of repetitions desired. The reason the user made these choices was, of course, that the exercise equipment itself was inherently incapable of any intellectual participation. However, with the advent of computers, it became possible to design exercise equipment with artificial intelligence enabling the CES to select the best exercise method based on the individual user.

The Ariel CES possesses several unique advances over other resistive exercise mechanisms. The most significant of these advances is the introduction of a stored program computer which monitors and selects the amount of force, velocity, acceleration, work, power and fatigue assignment. These selections are made based on continuous simultaneous measurements from the human performance.

The computer and its associated collection of unique programs allows the feedback controlled resistance to vary not only with the measured parameters of force velocity and displacement, but additionally, to modify that feedback loop while the exercise is in progress. This modification can, therefore, reflect changes in the pattern of exercise over time. The unique program selection can effect such changes in order to achieve a sequential or patterned progression of resistance for the optimum training effect. The advantage of this capability over previous systems is that the user can select the overall pattern of exercise and the system assumes responsibility for choosing the precise force level, speed of movement, and temporal sequence to achieve that pattern. Hence, this is the first 5th generation computer system where, in addition to assigning a constant program, the computer has the intellectual capabilities to adjust and modify its assignment to achieve excellence.

The revolutionary Ariel CES can be used to measure and record joint and associated muscle capabilities; diagnose and rehabilitate muscle and joint injuries with out risk of re-injury; evaluate the results of prescribed treatment; assist in the prevention of injury by indicating the effects of certain physical stress; provide conditioning, reconditioning, and strength training.

The state-of-the-art computer displays in real-time graphic analysis of any dynamic movement under the exercise condition on the monitor. Graphs correspond to each independently programmable system action.

Measures of:

  • position,
  • speed,
  • strength and
  • range of motion

are displayed to facilitate precise evaluation and diagnosis. Data can be quantified against previous data or against established normative values.

These unique characteristics can be used in:

  • rehabilitation,
  • fitness,
  • conditioning,
  • testing evaluation,
  • diagnostics and
  • research.


Here are a few reasons why…..


  1. Computerized monitoring and controlling of velocity or resistance during the exercise.
  2. Programmable variable velocity to over 1000 degrees per second in each direction.
    • Programmed acceleration.
    • Exercise specificity.
  3. Programmable variable resistance to over 1000 lbs. in each direction.
  4. Programmable pyramiding of resistance or speed in each direction.
  5. Programmable range of motion in each direction.
  6. Velocity or resistance can be independently controlled in each direction of each repetition.
  7. Computerized diagnostics and testing program for range of motion, velocity, strength, peak force, peak hold, delay time and fatigue index.
  8. Dynamic calibration through the entire range of motion.
  9. Data storage of performance and progress can chart and save each individuals exercise and diagnostic history for immediate recall.
  10. Comparison data is displayed visually on the color monitor and prints color graphs, charts and tabloid comparison reports of previous exercises and compares them with current performances and/or optimal performances, training and rehabilitation goals set earlier.
  11. Performance profile provides an instant display of average force for each repetition lifted, the maximum of each repetition, the average of both up and down strokes and the entire set and the total pounds lifted.
  12. Force curve illustrates the force, work, and power lifted in relation to time, the position of the bar and the pace of lifting.
  13. Calculates the reports caloric expenditures.
  14. Over twenty different exercises can be performed on each exercise system.
  15. The ability for the systems’ own on-board computer to self diagnose mechanical or electrical system malfunction.
  16. Quick, easy repair by exchanging the failed part within 24 hours.
  17. Fast set up for patient testing or training can be accomplished in a matter of seconds.
  18. Endurance programs can automatically reduce resistance with each repetition to accommodate the users level of fatigue.
  19. Comparison data is displayed on the screen, printed in color graphics and tabloid format. Some of the comparisons are as follows:
    • Present Performance – Previous Performance
    • Pre-injury Performance – Post injury Performance
    • Actual Performance – Ideal Performance
    • Right Limb – Left Limb
    • Extensors – Flexors
    • Force – Power – Speed — Any comparison combination
  20. Up to nine different exercise result formats may be selectively displayed on the monitor and copied to the printer. Default exercise result selection from this menu can be programmed into individual user files.

In addition to the above exercise results, the following data can be displayed:

  • Endurance by repetition
  • Endurance by time
  • Wave form analysis
  • Fatigue curves

These result formats are particularly useful in rehabilitation and physical therapy environments.

  1. A running total of calories used during an exercise session is reported after each set in the results menu banner.
  2. Performance goals can be displayed during an exercise for the up and/or down strokes. A target value option, which is selected during programming mode, causes the desired performance goal to be highlighted on the exercise display. The user then tries to attain that goal or target value with his or her performance bar graphs.
  3. Allows for comparison of one limb to another, one user to another, or any type of consecutive performance comparison.

The Ariel CES series is the most advanced physical fitness and rehabilitation system on the market. After years of research and development by the Coto Research Center of Coto de Caza, California, a leading independent laboratory in the fields of biomechanics and sports medicine, the CES strides past the standard method of exercising and propels fitness training into a new dimension. Computerized Biomechanical Analysis Inc. of Amherst, Mass. integrates the world of computers to incredibly efficient exercise stations to guarantee the individual the most effective and exciting method of exercising the 20th century has to offer.

The Ariel CES employs a sturdy digital hydraulic resistor pack instead of weights, springs or manually-adjusted hydraulic or pneumatics resistance to insure safety, quietness and efficiency. By using color graphics monitors and printers to illustrate the individuals’ exercise performance, one can follow a predetermined exercise program or create a physical profile relating to each individuals’ strengths, weaknesses, speed and endurance.


The accurate measurement of human performance is important in evaluating movement. Accurate and calibrated equipment is essential for the clinician in his analysis of the movement.

The essential of movement analysis includes the following parameters:

  1. Position: The location of the limb segment in space.

  2. Range of Motion, Velocity, and Acceleration: These values are dependent upon accurate position information. Range of motion is total position change; velocity is the rate of that change; acceleration is the rate of velocity change. These are computed values based upon the position information.

  3. Force: An external influence of pulling or pushing action which causes movement to occur. An exercise system must be dynamically calibrated to provide meaningful information in pounds, kilograms or newtons. A known force must be applied to the system and its effect upon the measuring device tabulated. Once a broad range of loads has been applied on the system and measured dynamically, a force calibration value is achieved. This calibrated information is stored in the computer memory to allow calculation of the subject kinetics.

  4. Weight: Gravity exerts a force upon all objects which results in that object having weight. Because gravity acts exclusively downward, biological motions on systems must consider gravitation. Gravity will act against a vertically upward motion and will aid a vertically downward motion. ‘Me computerized exercise system must account for the gravitational effect. Only a computerized system with a closed loop system can be calibrated for gravitational effect.

  5. Torque: A force which causes rotation. Mechanically, torque is the product of the amount of applied force times the perpendicular distance of that force from the axis about which the object will rotate. Torque then is a function of both force and distance variables. The calculation of accurate torque must rely on the computer capability of the exercise system.

Position, acceleration and force must be considered in the measurement of dynamic torque.

The common denominator to any movement is that movement is composed of the following parameters: position, range of motion, speed of movement (velocity), acceleration (change in velocity), force, torque, work, power and fatigue. The Ariel CES can control these parameters in different modes. Some of the modes are:

  • Diagnostics
  • Velocity training Power training
  • Resistance training Fatigue training
  • Work training
  • Power training
  • Fatigue training

CES is designed to provide accommodating exercise resistance proportional to the force applied by the exercising user. However, the CES further enhances the unique effectiveness and utility of accommodating resistance by providing:

  1. System Versatility
    • Incorporates isokinetic, isotonic and isometric routines separately or in combination.
    • Computerized diagnostics for range of motion, speed and strength.
  2. Establish Special Rehabilitation Programs
    • Programs can be tailored specifically to the individual.
    • Automatically adjusts to range of movement, pain, stress and level of exercises.
    • Unique responsiveness to the changes of force; the user is always challenged but never overtaxed.
  3. Monitors and Records Progress
    • Immediate feedback.
    • A variety of color graphs, charts and printouts provide boundless information of the individuals’ performance.
    • The individual is given direct visual response in real time.
    • Performance and progress are measured, recorded and stored for present or future comparisons.
  4. Diagnostic and Testing
    • Muscular/skeletal performance can be diagnosed more rapidly with greater efficiency and at lower cost.
    • Data is listed instantly on pertinent information including peak velocity, peak force, peak power, peak hold time, delay time, range of motion and many more parameters.
  5. Exercise is Safe and Concise
    • Programs are tailored to individual needs.
    • Adapts to users physical abilities and/or disabilities.
    • Adjusts as user fatigues.
  6. Accommodating Velocity
    • Varying automatically throughout the range of motion of the exercise to approximate the acceleration characteristics of functional movement patterns.
  7. Movement Specificity
    • Expanding the range of available treatment protocols to include a diversity of exercises simulating activities of daily living.
    • Data acquisition and reporting system.
  8. Performance Assessment
    • Utilizing a built-in computerized system for a versatile exercise performance


The Ariel CES allows a sophisticated data system to utilize commercial software packages such as Lotus 1-2-3 or dBase-H to manage a total clinical operation.

The Ariel CES stores all the data on a diskette and this data can be fed into a total database measurement. You may also record the directory of patients. ‘Me injury records saves you time by leading you efficiently through a series of standard data entries – patient name, age, sex, height, weight, etc. You simply type in a brief response, and the computer does the rest of the busy work. You can record the following information:

  • Activity during which injury occurred
  • Activity category
  • Treatment modality
  • Type of injury
  • Hospitalization
  • Location of injury
  • Treatment success
  • Severity of injury
  • New or recurrent injury
  • Requirement for a physician
  • Duration of treatment

Each category is broken down into responses meaningful to the athletic trainer, physician or coach. You may also add entries tailored to your own practice; no time-consuming copying of information; no eligible handwritten entries; no need for costly clerical help.

With the database system you can generate printed reports in minutes, saving literally days of valuable times. Simply tell the computer which record categories to scan and the program automatically generates a frequency count with row and column totals.

The most exciting ability is to combine the data management with the data stored from the subject performance. This allows you to report any specific data for range of movement, force curve, velocity curve, torque curve or statistical information. These data can be compared to standards for efficient evaluation of the person training on the exercise system.

The unique feature that sets the Ariel CES apart from all the other exercise systems is the Ariel interface between equipment and a state-of-the-art computer. This high technology advances the activity of exercise past the drudgery of lifting weights, weight stacks and simple hydraulic pneumatic valves and places it in an exciting, colorful and informative world of resistive exercise.

The programming of the Ariel CES contains an extensive amount of possibilities for the person who strives for the fastest and the most efficient way to build up strength, endurance, power and general physical fitness. The CES is also invaluable for the physical rehabilitation specialist, the sports trainer and the researcher, since its computer graphics and printouts contain information that no other sophisticated rehabilitation equipment can possibly approach.


Some of the screens that appear on the Ariel monitor are:

  • Exercise Selection – lists several User or Pre- defamed exercises to choose from.
  • Exercise Modes – gives nine operation modes to control the exercise.
  • Real-Time Performance Profile – gives real time data on average force, velocity, power and work for each repetition; the maximum and average of each repetition while the user exercises for both up and down strokes; and the entire set and total amount of work performed.
  • Force Curve – illustrates the force curve in relation to time for each repetition and in relation to position of the bar.
  • Rehabilitation Statistical Data – lists instantaneous data on pertinent information including peak force, peak hold, delay time, fatigue index, ratios of right to left and flexors to extensors and many more.
  • Compares Performances – saves and recalls previous exercises and compares them with current performances and/or optimal performances and training goals set earlier.
  • Fatigue Curves – illustrates the fatigue during given exercise and reports the amount of fatigue per repetition in relation to the number of repetitions and in relation to time of exercise.
  • Tailor Exercise Program – allows individual to program personal exercise program for each session. The program will be followed automatically until changed.
  • Pyramiding Exercises – allows for pyramiding exercise where each repetition in an exercise increases or decreases per repetition by specified amount.
  • Report Generation – easy-to-read printout reports gives instantaneous data on weight, angles, force, torque, power, speed, fatigue, etc. on exercise performed.
  • Data Base Comparison – between previous performances and comparisons to other persons, (i.e., world record holders or national standards) as well as comparison between limbs.


The Ariel CES provides an accommodating resistance, that is, the exercise resistance is directly proportional to the intensity of effort applied by the exercising user. This feature is uniquely advantageous in rehabilitation and training, as the exercise resistance automatically accommodates; to varying strength levels throughout the range of motion of the exercise, from repetition to repetition throughout the duration of the exercise, and from session to session throughout the complete rehabilitative or training process. The phenomenon of varying force output in a single movement is a consequence of the biomechanics of the joint system and the physiological length-tension curve of the musculo-tendinous unit. The actual muscular force output varies through the range of motion based upon the interaction of the muscle and bones. Variable force, then, is characteristic of virtually every human movement. Only intelligent systems; such as the CES, can precisely accommodate the resistance.

Because of the body lever system, even if a muscle contracts with exactly the same force throughout the movement, the resultant force on the end of the lever arm such as the hand or the foot, varies at each position in the range of motion. As the athlete or the patient’s strength varies due to change in the mechanical advantage of the linkage of his limbs, and also due to fatigue with each subsequent repetition, the accommodating computerized system responds instantly, automatically varying the force to match exactly that being applied by the athlete or the patient. Only a computerized controlled system can achieve this effect.

The Ariel CES assists the coach or the physical therapist to determine the load that should be put on a joint or limb for a particular exercise, or for a particular rehabilitation session, as this is accomplished automatically by the computer as the patient or athlete applies force to the exercise system. The optimum rate of improvement for each patient or athlete is achieved using the appropriate exercise intensity in each movement and exercise. By providing automatic instantaneous accommodating resistance proportional to the patient’s or athlete’s training progress, the CES is the safest and most effective exercise method available. As the exercise apparatus develops resistance only in proportion to the amount of force the patient applies, there is little danger of over-stressing muscles, joints, or connective tissues.


Just as a continuously varying force output is characteristic of natural movement, so too is variable velocity. Nearly all movement involves acceleration. When a javelin thrower releases the javelin, the angular velocity at the shoulder joint accelerates from a speed of zero to about 4,000 degrees per second and when a baseball pitcher throws a fast ball, his arm accelerates to nearly 6,000 degrees per second. Just as in athletics, acceleration is also involved in the natural activities of daily life. In walking for example, the angular velocity about the knee alternately accelerates and decelerates between zero and approximately 360 degrees per second and when running the velocity approaches 1,500 degrees per second.

In order to train with similar neuromuscular patterns that occur in real life, it is necessary to program the movement to this natural phenomenon. Only the Ariel CES established this today.

In restoring normal functionality then, acceleration and high velocity exercises are essential components of the therapeutic or training process.

With the ability to program the Ariel CES to operate in specific velocities throughout the range of movement from zero to over 1,000 degrees per second, the CES distinguishes itself from any available modalities today. As the operating velocity of the CES varies automatically throughout the range of motion, it trains the neuromuscular system in the most efficient method to achieve optimal results. The CES provides the appropriate resistance for each exercise, while approximating the acceleration patterns encountered in natural movements. This is the greatest achievement in intelligent exercise systems today and for the future. The CES thereby approaches ultimate specificity in recruiting and training the appropriate muscle fibers and neuromuscular pathways associated with each position in the range of motion of an exercise.


In addition to providing programmable accommodating resistance and programmable acceleration, the Ariel CES features unprecedented versatility in duplicating natural movements. The overwhelming weight of contemporary scientific evidence supports the advantage of those exercise patterns which duplicate, as closely as is practical, the force and the velocity of the particular movement. Only the CES can program the velocity and the force to resemble the real movement associated in normal and super-normal athletic performance. As far as rehabilitation, the CES is easily adaptable to each individual patient, permitting simulation of natural movement patterns previously unavailable with conventional resistance exercise systems. The value of an exercise therapy prescription and the validity of performance data need no longer be compromised by lack of movement specificity.


The Ariel CES is a resistance exercise system combining accommodating resistance, acceleration, and specificity of movement for optimum progress of the therapeutic and training process. As such, it is an invaluable tool for the coach, physician, and therapist. But the CES is also much more. Being a computer system, the CES displays and collects data and allows real-time motivational feedback for the patient, athlete and the person that trains. All of the relevant exercise variables are measured and integrated into a data base easily understood for the athlete or the patient performance status. This data base accumulates past and present information for the force, velocity, work, power, endurance and many more parameters related to the patient or athlete or normal person functional capacity. All of these variables in exercise are interrelated, and are measured concurrently with accuracy to characterize the performer.

Combined with a simplified computer data acquisition system, the Ariel CES provides the most economical, efficient, and effective means of administering, evaluating, and reporting athletic and rehabilitative exercise available today.

When you purchase the Ariel CES you have joined the following group of people:

  • The National Aeronautics and Space Agency which purchased the Ariel CES for research in adaptation of exercise to zero gravity. According to the experts in NASA, the CES is the only programmable exercise modality which can provide the data necessary to overcome the effects of zero gravity on the body. ‘Me CES is considered as the first equipment to be implemented in space.
  • The Harvard Medical School which conducted research utilizing the Ariel CES to determine human adaptation to physical stress and biochemical adaptation to various exercise regimen.
  • The United States Olympic Committee which is conducting research to improve the performance of the US athletes and is conducting intensive research in modalities which might replace the needs of using anabolic steroids and other ergogenic aids.
  • Enormous number of hospitals and rehabilitation centers have purchased the Ariel CES and utilized it in their centers to enhance rehabilitation beyond the traditional methods.
  • Hundreds of health and fitness clubs, who monitor thousands of users, use it to assign each individual user the most efficient fitness program.

The science of exercise reaps the benefits sown by the past decade’s explosion of technological advances with the introduction of the Ariel Computerized Exercise System. For the first time, there is an computerized exercise system that has the capability to monitor an individual’s present physical status, ability, and daily progress while exercising.

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